Blood tests were baseline, mainly for liver function associated with virus, and normal, as expected with Coxsackie virus or HFMD. For comparison, a search of the literature to identify similar ocular complications of HFMD was also undertaken. The inclusion criteria were for studies on humans over the last 5 years, using the keywords HFMD. A year-old male Caucasian refrigeration mechanic presented to his general practitioner with initial symptoms of severe sore throat ulcerations visible , mild fever, malaise, and body aches. The children with HFMD mostly presented low VA concentrations and simultaneously had lower serum IFNa levels, decreased immune antibody production and more severe illness.

Coxsackievirus A6—induced hand-foot-mouth disease. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Results We found articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Children under 2 with EV71 are the highest risk group for developing the severe form of the disease. Published online Mar Thus, knowledge of the disease and early detection prevents the infection from spreading to other children and adults.

Recent studies suggest a strong association between HFMD and climate changes, as the incidence of the disease increases in the springtime, when our case occurred.

literature review hfmd

The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed literatuure HFMD. It is very important to establish a correct diagnosis to avoid prescribing inappropriate drugs [ 1735 ]. The full terms of this license are available at https: Characteristically, they appear on the sides and back of the fingers, around the nails, around the heel and on the palm of the hand and soles of the feet.


China [ 38 ]. In addition, ensure that the patient gets plenty of fluids and avoids spicy and acidic foods, and foods that require a lot of chewing.

Turku, Finland [ 31 ]. From his background and symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with HFMD.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

Outbreaks, severe disease, and case reports of spread of the disease to immunocompetent adults has prompted the WHO to produce a guide for clinical management and public health response. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, litegature, and mouth disease in Sarawak.

Ann Acad Med Singapore. Severe mucosal lesions with rapid erosion impairing fhmd ability to consume food; immunocompetent adult. Beijing, China [ 27 ].

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

It is not necessary to treat the nails in any way except by keeping the area clean and avoiding further injury. Blood tests were baseline, mainly for liver function associated with virus, and normal, as expected with Coxsackie virus or HFMD.

The article also aims to identify the etiologic agents and publicize transmissible factors in order to correctly diagnose patients, and thus to establish an effective treatment plan both individually and collectively.

Similarly, ina year-old female presented with acute maculopathy with concurrent HFMD infection.

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

Published online Oct Effects of public health interventions in reducing transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease.


The incubation period is short, ranging from 2 to 7 days. A total of 13 individual case reports with ocular associations, including this clinical record, were identified in the literature worldwide. To prevent the infection from spreading to children and vulnerable adults, doctors and dentists should be aware that HFMD can also occur in immunocompetent adults [ 6 ]. Hangzhou, China [ 24 ]. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot and mouth disease: The subgenotype C4 of EV71 was the main causative agent of the epidemic in Shanghai.

literature review hfmd

Beijing, China [ 32 ]. Short term effects of weather on hand, foot and mouth disease. Lesions resolve in 3—5 days and heal without scarring. The main routes of transmission are person-to-person through oral-pharyngeal secretions or by direct vesicle contactvia contaminated water fecal-oral route [ 12 ], and via contaminated objects. Nanchang, China [ 14 ]. A At 3 days after initial symptom presentation; B at 12 days after initial symptom presentation. The patient regularly entered the childcare center to drop off and pick up his child.

literature review hfmd

Fatal coxsackievirus A pneumonitis in adult. Box 1 Clinical course of hand—foot—mouth disease. Discussion of management strategies for this workplace, its staff, and visitors litdrature also included.

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